Green Burial: An affordable and environmentally-friendly alternative death care option

Natural burial Georgia

Natural Burial Explained

What is a green burial or a natural burial?

A natural burial, or green burial, focuses on an environmentally sustainable and organic way to conduct the disposition of a deceased body.  The deceased is not embalmed, and the body is interred in the ground, using only a biodegradable coffin or shroud.   The deceased is buried directly into the earth, without a concrete burial vault or any metal parts on the coffin.

The aim is to allow the body to naturally decompose and return to the soil, as in the phrase so commonly used around death of “ashes to ashes, dust to dust.”

Natural burial

Why Opt for a natural burial?

Green funerals have been around for some time.  Indeed, what we know as a traditional American Funeral, was closer to being a natural burial in the mid-19th century, when undertakers built wooden coffins, and interment was direct into the earth.

Some faiths practice only natural burial, such as Muslims and Jews, where beliefs mandate a natural, organic approach to death care.

Natural burial is experiencing something of a revival today.  It is gaining more attention in states with greater awareness and undertaking to be more sustainable and protect our planet and its resources.

There is also a growing interest in home funerals or family-led funerals.  Read more about conducting a DIY Funeral.

The main reasons people consider a green burial are:

  • Simplicity
  • Cost
  • Conserving natural resources & natural areas
  • Eliminating exposure to hazardous chemicals

Let’s explore these reasons in a little more detail.

The Simplicity of a Natural Burial

Those who opt for a natural burial often seek a simpler, more holistic approach to death care.  They want simple funeral arrangements that have minimal intervention on the body and provide a lasting green impact on the planet.

There are options for the deceased to be buried with a seedling, allowing a tree to grow from the remains of someone who passed.  This does seem a wonderful legacy to re-oxygenate our planet and have a long-term memorial arboretum.

Cost – Is Natural Burial cheaper?

According to the NFDA 2022 Cremation & Burial report, a typical traditional funeral, including casket and embalming, costs $7,848, and this is without a cemetery plot fee.  Items such as embalming, a casket, a burial vault, and a plot in perpetuity in a designated cemetery are all costly.

This is where a natural burial is much less expensive as costs such as embalming, a steel casket, and a burial vault are not required.

A Green Funeral / Natural Burial is likely to cost in the region of $1,000 to $4,000. However, it can cost less if the family handles all the arrangements to transfer the deceased directly to the green burial site for interment.

Committing your body to Conserve natural resources & natural areas

Natural Conservation Burial Site

Every year, the U.S. buries 17,000 tons of steel and copper in vaults, 90,000 tons in caskets, 30 million board feet of hardwood, and 1.6 million tons of concrete.  A natural burial is not as demanding on our resources as fewer resources are consumed. 

Cremation, which has become more popular over the last decade, requires the resource of gas, so although sometimes considered more environmentally friendly, it is still consuming a natural resource.

Green burial also helps to conserve our natural areas and even creates new natural forests and meadows.

Visit our post on Why Should You Consider a Green Funeral.

Opting to Eliminate exposure to hazardous chemicals

Formaldehyde, which is used in embalming fluid, is a hazardous chemical.  It is a known respiratory irritant and carcinogen.  Aside from embalming fluid absorbing into our planet as a body decomposes, it is not safe to expose funeral home workers and morticians to this hazardous substance routinely.

Can a natural burial be affordable?

Yes, green burial or natural burial is significantly more affordable than a traditional funeral.  The need for the embalming process, an expensive casket, and a burial vault are all eliminated.

The costs for a simple cardboard container to hold the deceased, a simple pine coffin, or a muslin shroud are way less than a steel or copper casket.

Some natural burial sites offer interment at very affordable prices.  It is fair to say that it is possible to conduct a simple, natural burial for as little as $500 – $1,500.

Check out our Green Burial Helpline numbers at the bottom of this page if you need to speak to a local green burial expert.

How do I choose a green burial site?

You need to consider certain things if you are seeking a green burial site.  Do you want a bespoke natural cemetery? Or a specially designated ‘green’ section within a conventional cemetery.  This is what is known as a ‘hybrid’ green burial cemetery.

More conventional cemeteries are adding green burial sections to cater to the demand for a natural burial.

Some of these cemeteries may still have plot fees that are considered more expensive than a conservation natural burial ground, as they still have costs associated with cemetery ground maintenance.

If you are interested in a ‘wild’ conservation area burial site, then you need to be more selective in which site you choose.

Click here for a list of all green burial cemeteries in the U.S.

What if there is no green burial cemetery near me?

You can consider making a burial in a cemetery greener by choosing not to have embalming performed and using a biodegradable casket.  If the cemetery allows it, you can choose not to use a concrete burial vault.

If the family owns rural land, you can consider a home burial.  Most states allow natural burial on private property.  Each county has its own zoning requirements, so you must apply for the correct permit.

Just remember that unless you have established a protected family cemetery on the land if the land use should change, the remains could become inaccessible or disturbed.

Do I need a funeral director?  And, how do I choose a funeral company for a green burial?

In most states, you do not legally need to employ a funeral director.  It is just a convention that we do.  10 states have legislation that stipulates only a funeral director can transport the deceased and obtain the necessary permits and death certificates.

Suppose you have decided on a natural burial for a family member in the 40 states where you do not legally have to use the services of a funeral director. In that case, you can conduct a family-led funeral and transfer the deceased to the natural burial ground for interment.

Most funeral homes can assist you with a green burial option if this is what you choose.  Several funeral companies are specialized in offering natural burial options.

How do I choose a receptacle for a natural burial?

Green Burial Container

You need to choose a biodegradable container.  This can range from a plain wooden coffin, reinforced cardboard container, or wicker basket to a simple muslin shroud.  It is all about what is right for your loved one and family.

A wooden coffin will likely cost more but is easier to transport safely.  Reinforced cardboard containers can be purchased at a low cost and can be hand-decorated with messages by family and friends before being interred at a burial site.

Shrouds offer very limited support for transferring the deceased to a cemetery but have the most minimal resistance as a biodegradable barrier.

What kind of memorial marker can be erected in a green burial cemetery?

This depends on the burial site.  If it is a hybrid green cemetery, you may be able to erect a conventional grave marker.  The conservation of natural burial sites aims to minimize the impact on the natural terrain.  Therefore, markers are typically only simple natural rocks or native plants.

Some green burial sites will offer plaques that sit flush with the ground.  Most natural burial sites offer grave locations recorded by GPS so that you have a permanent ‘marker’ of the gravesite location.

What does a natural burial cost?

The cost of a natural burial varies by region and what type of burial site you opt for.  Generally, a green burial for a body will range from $1,000 to $4,000.  Interment of cremated remains in a natural burial site will likely cost between $200 and $1,000.

Although a natural burial can be achieved at a fraction of the cost of a traditional burial, some funeral home charges for a green burial can seem expensive.

A funeral home will use a simple pine casket that they will likely mark up.  You can purchase or make your own container, as the funeral home must accept any ‘appropriate’ container you provide. This can make a significant saving on the cost of the burial.

A natural burial is a very simplistic and humanist approach to death care.  Many families who opt for a natural burial feel strongly about being in control of the process and the ritual of death care.

A green burial can often be arranged as an inexpensive option for direct burial.

California Green Burial Helpline (415) 903-5131

Texas Green Burial Helpline (877) 354-2102

Florida Green Burial Helpline (833) 402-9077

New York Green Burial Helpline (718) 540-8819

Pennsylvania Green Burial Helpline (717) 220-8855

Sara Marsden

I have been researching and writing about the death care industry for the last fifteen years. End of life services and experiences are something most of us choose not to reflect upon until we are suddenly faced with dealing with it. I have been contributing comprehensive and independent resources for families that explain how the funeral industry operates, and the laws that govern funeral practices. Sara writes for US Funerals Online and DFS Memorials LLC, as well as contributing to other forums and publications for the death care industry. I have a BA in Cultural Studies. This helps my analysis of cultural death care rituals, alongside a career background in Business Management. The death care industry is undergoing an epoch of change and this fascinates me.

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